Measures identified for further development of agricultural sectors
On November 13, President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev held a meeting on the issues of further development of livestock, poultry, fish farming and sericulture.
As it is known, by the decree of the Head of the state of October 23 this year, the Strategy for Development of Agriculture in the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2020-2030 was adopted.
Within the framework of this document, the modernization of the agrarian sector using modern approaches has begun. In addition, on November 7, the President signed a resolution "On accelerated development of livestock industries in the Republic of Karakalpakstan".
"Unfortunately, we don't have to talk about the existence of an effective system that would ensure an abundance of meat, milk and eggs in our markets, price stability, increased income by placing crops, selecting livestock breeds, creating a value chain, using the potential of the regions correctly", said the President.
The need for livestock feed in the country is 120 million tons, but only 47 million tons were produced last year (demand is satisfied by 40 percent).
Around the world, silage and combination feed are used for cattle fattening. In Yangiyul district, an intensive variety of corn was grown as a re-culture, from which 50-60 tons of silage were obtained, the cost of 1 kilogram of which amounted to only 150 soums. A kilogram of husk in the market costs more than 2 thousand soums. This means that livestock farmers themselves are able to grow feed 10 times cheaper than meal and husk.
The fact that at places, instead of taking measures to cover the feed deficit, the land allocated for fodder crops is not used efficiently and for other purposes, and despite the fact that up to 100 centners of feed wheat can be grown on one hectare, was criticized.
"How can one explain that 16 thousand hectares in Syrdarya, 8.5 thousand hectares in Tashkent region are not used after harvesting grain?", President Shavkat Mirziyoyev raised a question.
Over the past 10 months this year, cattle of meat breeds worth 100 million USD were imported from abroad. In this regard, instructions were given for the allocation of land to livestock breeders, the proper distribution of crops to strengthen the food supply.
The Head of the state pointed to similar problems in poultry farming. For example, 70-75 percent of the feed needs of the industry are met by imports; for 10 months of this year, 160 thousand tons of soybean and sunflower meal for 80 million USD and 80 thousand tons of corn for 14 million USD were imported. This year, only 5 thousand hectares of land were allocated to industry enterprises for fodder storage instead of the planned 137 thousand hectares.
Improvement of the breed remains one of the urgent problems in animal husbandry.
It should be noted that local cattle of meat breed at the cost of 20 thousand soums for their fattening gains 900 grams of live weight (500 grams of meat) per day, and thoroughbred species – 1 kilogram 600 grams of live weight (900 grams of meat).
Currently, 94 percent of cattle, 84 percent of sheep and goats, 58 percent of poultry are raised in households. In general, the share of livestock pedigree cattle is only 34 percent. This figure is 26 percent in Syrdarya and Surkhandarya regions, 28 percent in Khorezm, 31 percent in Kashkadarya, 33 percent in Samarkand region.
In sheep breeding, improvement of the breed was achieved only among karakul sheep, only by 30 percent.
In addition, one local breed cow produces no more than 2.5 tons of milk per year. And one thoroughbred, imported for 2-3 thousand dollars, instead of 35-40 liters, gives an average of 25 liters of milk due to the lack of knowledge and skills of breeders.
There are not enough specialists for proper feeding of cattle, the provision of modern veterinary services. Farmers have to attract veterinarians and zoo engineers from abroad, to pay them 3-4 thousand dollars a month.
At the meeting, it was noted that the lack of an established system for slaughtering livestock using standard technology leads to the production of low-quality hides, which affects the leather and footwear industry. So, in Uzbekistan there are 49 modern slaughterhouses, including one in Andijan, 2 in Namangan, Syrdarya, Surkhandarya, Fergana regions, 3 in Khorezm. Moreover, the capacities of these slaughterhouses are only 30-40 percent loaded, as the population is not interested in their services.
There are many problems in development of poultry, fish farming, rabbit breeding – livestock industries that can yield high effects in a short time.
In particular, today fish is grown intensively only on 460 hectares (1 percent) of 38 thousand hectares of artificial reservoirs. The main reason is the cost of fish cultivated in this way, twice as high as fed by the traditional method. Therefore, entrepreneurs do not see prospects in intensive fish farming. Although this method allows to get to 100 tons of products from 1 hectare, while the usual method gives no more than 2-3 tons.
The President gave instructions for establishing intensive cultivation of delicious fish species such as salmon, sturgeon, and trout. It was noted that there is great potential for export when organizing their breeding in foothills based on modern technologies.
At the meeting, rabbit breeding issues were also considered.
The analysis shows that livestock of a thoroughbred rabbit in natural conditions increases four times (6-8 rabbits), in industrial conditions – up to 7 times (8-10 rabbits).
However, in Uzbekistan there are 1,250 rabbit farms, the number of rabbits grown on an industrial basis is only 500 thousand.
The President set a number of tasks for a comprehensive and systematic solution of these problems, the consistent development of livestock industries.
So, on the basis of an experiment being carried out in Andijan region, a completely new system will be established in densely populated areas of the country. Based on the loans allocated under the "Every Family Entrepreneur" program, meat and milk processing enterprises will supply the population through cooperatives of up to 5 heads of pedigree cattle and train in caring for them. The company will ensure constant veterinary control over pedigree cattle, its fattening according to the established diet and the purchase of milk received at a market price.
The advantage of this system is that the population will receive livestock, will sell milk at the market price and pay a loan for livestock, as well as expand its economy at the expense of calves. This experience can be introduced in rabbit breeding.
The State Committee for Veterinary Medicine and Livestock Development, the People's Bank and Microcredit Bank have been instructed, together with the khokimiyats, to establish this system in Andijan, Namangan, Samarkand, Fergana, Khorezm regions within a month.
In addition, the need for organizing livestock cooperatives based on Karakalpakstan experience was noted. That is, based on the possibility, family farms will be organized from 30 to 100 livestock. Cooperatives will provide these farms with food, veterinary services and agricultural technology.
This experience is interesting in that family farms do not have to look for food and equipment, a buyer of products. Cooperative will deal with these issues.
The above organizations and khokimiyats were instructed to organize at least two such livestock cooperatives in Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya, Jizzakh, Syrdarya, Navoi, Bukhara regions.
The need for organizing large farms for 2-5 thousand heads of cattle by creating grain-growing clusters based on the experience of Tashkent region was emphasized.
Moreover, such clusters will be organized by allocation to farmers who want to expand and own at least 500 livestock, 300-400 hectares of land for every thousand livestock.
This system is attractive in that large clusters, processing grain, will produce feed, as well as silage, growing fodder crops on land freed up from wheat as repeated crops.
A number of agencies and organizations were given the task of considering the proposals of each applicant within a month and determining measures for their implementation.
In addition, it is necessary to effectively use the possibilities of cotton-growing clusters in providing livestock feed. These structures have enough land, they have a strong fodder, labor, technical and financial base. Therefore, cotton clusters were recommended to organize complexes with a livestock of at least 5 thousand cattle.
At the meeting it was noted that in order to increase the volume of fodder procurement, it is necessary to widely introduce Navoi experience in all regions.
In particular, in Khatirchi district, as an experiment, a project is being implemented to introduce water-saving technologies in pastures of 530 hectares. Within the framework of the project, through intensive irrigation of pastures, corn was grown on 1 hectare with a green mass of 80 tons.
There are tens of thousands of hectares of such pastures in Karakalpakstan, Navoi, Bukhara, Kashkadarya regions. In this regard, responsible persons were instructed to implement a targeted program for growing feed crops on pastures with an area of at least 10 thousand hectares.
Breeding is the main factor of high productivity in animal husbandry. In this regard, measures were identified to organize artificial insemination points in each region, to implement artificial insemination of 70 percent of cows at the disposal of the population by the end of the year, and to improve the breed of 60 percent of cattle by 2025.
The importance of training farmers and the population in proper raising of cattle, the organization of a Training and Practical Center for Livestock Breeders on the basis of Samarkand Institute of Veterinary Medicine and its Tashkent Branch, and holding practical and distance workshops was also noted.
Issues of reducing production costs and increasing the competitiveness of the sphere were also discussed at the meeting.
It is envisaged that from next year subsidies will be allocated for livestock, fish farming and poultry farming, which, according to international experience, will be provided in proportion to the volume of finished products.
Instructions were given to ensure close interaction between the services of veterinary medicine, quarantine, standardization, sanitation and epidemiology, and implementation of control procedures for the entire chain of livestock production.
Particular attention was paid to creating conditions for producers in the domestic market, ensuring price stability for animal products.
It was noted that there are no poultry shops in 90 dehkan markets in Andijan, Jizzakh, Namangan, Samarkand, Syrdarya, Fergana and Khorezm regions. Fish-breeding enterprises have only 2 outlets in Syrdarya markets, 3 in Surkhandarya, 4 in Navoi, 9 in Fergana.
To ensure qualitative execution of tasks set at the meeting, Friday was declared Livestock Day. A Republican Council has been formed, which is responsible for coordinating the execution of orders and promoting livestock breeders.
In addition to food security, the development of silk industry was also considered.
Sericulture is an industry that allows to get export-oriented products in a very short time – 30-35 days. In the world there are more than 20 countries harvesting silkworm cocoons. Uzbekistan takes the third place in terms of harvesting volumes after China and India, but Uzbekistan's share in the world market is only 2.5 percent.
As a result of measures taken over the past two years, in particular by arranging the procurement of silkworm cocoons four times a year, the crop was brought up to 19 thousand tons.
The great potential of Uzbekistan in this industry, as evidenced by the analysis of market conditions, was noted. Effective use of these opportunities will allow in the coming years to bring annual exports up to 500 million USD.
However, there are a number of problems in the industry. So, 6 thousand hectares of mulberry plantations degraded. Productivity on 37 thousand hectares does not reach even 30 percent.
Highly nutritious varieties make up only 5-6 percent of mulberries. The fight against diseases and pests is not carried out in a timely manner and efficiently, as a result, the food supply is lost.
Eighty percent of mulberry silk is imported. The material and technical base of the Scientific Research Institute of Sericulture is outdated, the only institution in the country creating a super-elite variety of silkworm eggs.
Based on this, it is planned to create 20 thousand hectares of new mulberries and renew 10 thousand hectares of old mulberries by the end of 2022.
To do this, in existing mulberry plantations, the population will be provided with land of 1-3 hectares on the basis of a family contract. Silk-growing clusters will distribute mulberry seedlings for updating mulberries, as well as silkworm eggs. Along with the proceeds from cocoon harvesting, the population will have at their disposal a harvest from additional crops grown between the rows of mulberries.
The Ministry of Agriculture, Uzbekipaksanoat Association, khokims of the regions and heads of relevant agencies were instructed to allocate land for new mulberry plantations, update old plantations, and introduce water-saving technologies. The task was set to bring cocoon harvesting volumes to 21 thousand tons next year and up to 30 thousand tons in 2025.
It was also instructed to establish the procurement of "super elite" and "elite" varieties of silkworm eggs in Uzbekistan, to provide support for the drainage stations, take measures for the chemical and biological protection of mulberries, and create new jobs.
The absence in Uzbekistan of laboratories for the examination and assessment of the quality of cocoons and silk was noted. As a result of this, enterprises send their products abroad for examination of products, which leads to additional costs. In this regard, the President noted the need for organizing a modern laboratory at Uzbekipaksanoat Association.
Reports and proposals of responsible leaders and khokims were heard on the issues discussed at the meeting.